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Category: Audio-visual

Third edition of USA copyright office compendium – audiovisual works

What Is an Audiovisual Work?

The Copyright Act defines audiovisual works as “works that consist of a series of related images which are intrinsically intended to be shown by the use of machines or devices such as projectors, viewers, or electronic equipment, together with accompanying sounds, if any, regardless of the nature of the material objects, such as films or tapes, in which the works are embodied.”

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Research on illegal IPTV in EU – enforcement measures

Key points:

  • Rights holders can avail of civil enforcement measures against both direct infringers and intermediaries.
  • A wide spectrum of blocking injunctions can be sought against internet access providers to repress IPTV infringements.
  • Internet intermediaries can receive orders to disclose information on infringers; however, disclosure of information on end-users of illegal IPTV services may not be compatible with EU data protection law.
  • Criminal measures are also available in all EU Member States against IPTV infringers on a commercial scale.
  • Import and sale of IPTV devices may be prohibited on the ground of non-compliance with EU standards on radio equipment.

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EU illegal IPTV research – the actors of the illegal IPTV ecosystem

Another part of fundamental EU research on IPTV. Now – actors and ecosystems participants. The ecosystem for unauthorised IPTV includes several actors. They consist of primary infringers (the providers of the unauthorised content), a series of active and passive intermediaries, and final consumers. In addition, a number of facilitators and enablers can also be involved by giving instructions and providing tutorials for the installation of middleware — software instrumental for the fruition of the unauthorised content.

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EU illegal IPTV research – The protection of broadcast content

Reproduction right and the exception for temporary acts of reproduction

Linear transmission of TV content involves the reproduction of fragments of broadcast at various stages of the technical process. These fragments are temporarily stored in the decoder or in the RAM memory of the computer, depending on the technical means used to transmit the signal, and are created in the end user’s TV screen while watching the broadcast.

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EU illegal IPTV research – broadcasters’ copyright

Key Points

  • Broadcasters’ rights cover on-demand streaming but not necessarily live internet streaming.
  • Only seven Member States explicitly recognise broadcaster’s rights in live internet streaming: Austria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, Romania, Sweden and the UK.

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It is not good to much advertising in cinema legislators believe and little bit more for today

The new draft law providing limits for advertising is introduced for consideration in Russian state duma. The law aims to reduce the duration of advertising showing before film running. The reason is the advertising can lasts from 15 to 30 minutes. Actually the viewers use this time in order to buy something to make movie viewing more pleasant. The legislators believe the advertising is shown contrary to the will of viewers in violation of Russian law. But the draft law does not provide liability for its violation.

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TV channels can cut off telecom operators from their broadcast

The Russian TV channels are very concerned when their broadcast is available in internet without their permission. The ad revenues, generated by such broadcast, flow to the packets of providers making TV channels’ broadcast available in internet. Besides TV channels don’t always have online rights for certain programming they broadcast. TV channels want control online consuming of their programming, including ad revenue generating by online broadcasting, the ad revenues generated by traditional TV decreasing each year.

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EU research on illegal IPTV

There has been published another research on illegal IPTV consuming. Streaming is most popular way of access and consuming of content. It could be said about audio visual content as well as music. The purpose of research “was to enhance the level of understanding about the ways illegal IPTV is carried out, how the business models around this phenomenon work” and how to handle the problem with illegal IPTV. There is no sense to overwrite the whole study, but the there is some interesting thing attracting attention, like copyright infringing business models.

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Ministry of culture wants to limit box office for successful movies

Russian ministry of culture has finally proposed draft law aiming to set limits for foreign movies, in particular for hollywood movies. The main purpose of the draft law is to provide more opportunities for those movies which can’t attract viewers’ attention. In other words the law proposes to limit the quantity of film sessions in single cinema. For these purposes the law even provides definition for cinema.

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Online cinemas don’t want share with MinCult online box office figures

Recently the Russian ministry of culture has proposed to oblige online cinemas to share statistics showing how many times the movie has been streamed. This proposal could benefit right holders as they would know how for sure how many royalties they should receive. But this idea is not welcomed by online cinemas themselves. They have express their concerns in the letter to the deputy of minister of culture.

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